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This has been greatly extended more recently by the further development of cell labelling techniques . Marine benthic worms with pharyngeal gill slits and deuterostome development, but lacking a notochord. The phyla Mollusca and Annelida belong to a clade called the Lophotrochozoa, which also includes the phylum Nemertea, or ribbon worms (). They are distinct from the Ecdysozoa based on evidence from analysis of their DNA, which has changed our views of the relationships among invertebrates.

Ruta et al. showed that Syllidia is the sister group to Nereimyra, and that result also has strong support in our study. The delineation of Nereimyra has been unclear and several species have been referred to Nereimyra that here are not considered closely related. We here delineate the taxon to include three species, N. These three species are morphologically similar and we provide a detailed description of N.

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Aggressive behaviour has been reported in several species of nereids (a group of free-moving polychaetes); they respond to a stimulus by extending the proboscis to expose the jaws. Neanthes arenaceodentata fights members of its own sex but not those of the opposite sex. The response may be related to spawning since this species does not swarm but lays gametes in the tube of another individual; fighting thus prevents the occupation of one tube by two individuals of the same sex. bioluminescent—that is, capable of producing light. The phenomenon occurs within the cells of Polynoe; the lower surfaces of some scale worms have special photocells that produce light when stimulated. Odontosyllis light production is related to sexual maturity and swarming, which is influenced by lunar cycles.

These segments are rings that repeat all up and down the worm’s body. Since both the polychaetes and oligochaetes are able to regrow lost parts—i.e., regenerate —it may appear that they are essentially ageless. Few longevity studies have been carried out with polychaetes, however. Most of the adults of species studied have a characteristic number of segments, which form rapidly during early life and prior to the appearance of gametes. Many polychaetes, especially among the nereids, reproduce only once and then die. In nature these worms, usually quite sluggish after spawning, are eaten by fish and other animals.

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This allows the Medicaid agency to collect any unpaid funds should the community spouse die before his or her life expectancy. Beta Grove crashed on the fifth world of the Tau Ceti system after thirty years of traveling through space, and the creatures on board thrived and evolved further. The annelids developed a hive mind, becoming a monolithic entity that called itself The Many.

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