dos. Content and methods
Data were collected using the WBQ tool from in the area of Athens, Greece from 473 individuals aged 16–86 (42 ± 18 years) (221 males) in summer and from 511 individuals aged 16–86 (38 ± 20 years) (245 males) in winter, stratified by age and sex according to the Hellenic Statistical Authority . All volunteers were informed on the objectives of the study and the procedures involved and signed an informed consent. The retrieved data were confidential, and the study followed the ethical considerations provided by The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki). The WBQ incorporates a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire validated to record energy intake against three-day diaries (p
Particularly, the latest WBQ brings: (A) analysis towards profile of the participant; (B) tape out of usage on the period of the earlier in the day times of solid and you may fluid restaurants, liquids or drinks regarding a semi-quantitative dining frequency survey (FFQ) out-of 58 foods validated to have quoting time consumption together with more sugar and honey that is added to drinks; and (C) estimate of exercise with regards to brand new Around the globe Physical exercise Questionnaire (IPAQ) , and therefore suggestions time of exercise from the three pastime accounts (intense, moderate, lightweight take action) otherwise inactive criteria. The fresh new IPAQ has been verified in past times while the a combination-national device to possess tape exercise [20,21,22] also to imagine energy costs.
The power and liquid posts out of filed dinners and you may beverages is assessed utilising the Diet Research Together with (Wadsworth Posting Co Inc., Belmont, California, USA), and that spends structure analysis throughout the USDA Federal Nutrient Databases and selected Greek dishes (i.e., mousakas, pastitsio, Greek yoghurt, lentiles kidney beans soups, multiple Greek pies, souvlaki, stuffed tomatoes) . Based on complete energy intake and energy expenses, opportunity balance is actually analyzed as well.
Inside study, “drinks” refers to fruits juice or packaged liquid 100% rather than sugar articles, sugar-sugary beverages (SSDs) (fruits nectar that have glucose, soft drinks that have sugar and energy/isotonic drinks), low calorie carbonated drinks, tea and you will herbal infusions, dairy (all kinds of whole milk, chocolates milk and you can cocoa drink), milkshake and you will sherbets, coffee-and coffee drinks, and you will alcoholic drinks (alcohol, wine and all sorts of sorts of alcohol). “Drink energy consumption (DEI)” makes reference to times intake off drinks “overall opportunity intake (TEI)” to times intake off most of the present and you will “energy consumption out-of delicacies” to opportunity consumption out-of good and liquid dishes (age.grams., soups). The fresh new share off products communities to help you total opportunity intake (research off Malisova mais aussi al. 2013), shown since overall drinking habits (TWI), we.e., h2o regarding beverages, h2o, solid and you can fluid snacks and as take in intake of water (DWI), we.age., water off drinks and liquids.
step three. Analytical Data
Results are displayed because mean ± sd into normally marketed parameters and you will median (P25–P75) into skewed of them. Normality is checked out using the opportunities–chances area (P–P plot) and you can histograms. Differences between men and women about your full times intake, energy out-of drinks, opportunity off delicacies, times expense, time balance, water intake, water away from h2o and beverages, liquids of products, drinking water off liquids, liquid out-of edibles, liquids loss and you may liquid balance was in fact reviewed to your independent attempt t-shot to the generally speaking delivered parameters plus the Mann-Whittney You-take to to your skewed of them. Likewise, differences between the fresh new five quartiles of energy of products was in fact examined into one to-means ANOVA F-try into normally marketed parameters while the Kruskal-Wallis H Test on skewed ones. Advantages height is lay from the 5%. Correlations between the share regarding drinks in order to water intake inside the loved ones in order to energy during the winter months and you may june had been checked-out by the Pearson’s otherwise Spearman’s relationship coefficients to possess generally speaking distributed or skewed variables. All of the mathematical analyses performed having fun with PASW Statistics 18 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA).